Historical Tour in SchleswigFriedrichsberg
From the 17th century onwards, the necessary outbuildings and facilities of the ducal court began to cluster within sight of Gottorf Castle. Surviving witnesses of this period include the former postal station, today the guesthouse “Zum weißen Schwan”, and the former Gottorf water mill. Notice the high water marks on the granite foundation! The street names “Herrenstall”, or “Lords’ Stable”, and “Alter Garten”, or “Old Garden”, are reminders of the former locations of the riding stables and the kitchen and ornamental garden of Gottorf Castle. No longer visible is the former millpond, long since filled in. In its place are the parklike gardens in front of the imposing building of the Higher Regional Court, erected in 1878 as the Prussian district administrative headquarters
Among the most significant historic buildings of Schleswig are the Freihäuser, or “free houses” on Gottorfstraße. Their name comes from the fact that their owners, usually nobles or high-ranking administrators of the ducal court, were not subject to the jurisdiction of the city’s courts or tax collectors. The best-known of the “free houses” is probably the “Prinzenpalais”, or “Princes’ Palace”, a three-winged palazzo arranged around a central square which now contains the “memory” of Schleswig-Holstein: the State Archives. Across from the Prinzenpalais stands the Günderothsche Hof, formerly the guesthouse of Duke Frederik III and today the Municipal Museum. Also worth a stop is the Fürstenhof, or Princes’ Court, between the Prinzenpalais and the court building.
Schleswig’s railway station was moved to the outskirts of the city in 1869. To connect the now distant station with the city centre, the Bahnhofstraße was laid out, along which a horse railway and later streetcars carried passengers to and fro. Many houses typical of their era were constructed in the years leading up to and just after the turn of the 20th century. With their styles taken from Prussian architectural catalogs and, later, showing the influence of the Art Nouveau movement, they give the street a character of its own. The railway station itself, an outstanding example of the locally influenced “Heimatschutz” architectural movement that enjoyed its heyday in the first half of the 20th century, was completed shortly after the end of the First World War. It owes its rather grand station concourse to its former status as a Prussian administrative centre and provincial capital.
“Drauß bei Schleswig vor der Pforte wohnen arme Leute viel ...” [“Out near Schleswig, before the gate, live many poor people”] – such is the depiction of southern Friedrichsberg provided by the Romantic poet Clemens Brentano in his ballad “Die Gottesmauer”. The poem is based on an event from the Napoleonic Wars, when a providential snowdrift saved the Widow Mumm and her daughter and grandson from marauding Russian and Swedish soldiers in 1814. In the Second Schleswig War of 1864, nearby earthworks protected the city against attack from the south. Today, the “cannon monument” stands nearby as a call to peace. Next to it, a local savings institution, the Friedrichsberger Spar- und Leihkasse, erected in 1868 a building housing a foundation for Schleswig’s poor and elderly citizens.
Below the Dreifaltigkeitskirche, or Church of the Holy Trinity, built around 1650 according to plans by the Gottorf court scholar Adam Olearius, clustered the centres of religious life in Schleswig: the almshouse, the pastor’s residence, and the school. The former almshouse has been replaced by a modern building housing church offices and the pastor’s residence (the Elisabeth-Beling-Haus), while the old pastor’s house gave way to a new Neoclassical successor, today in private hands. In 1927, the imposing Bugenhagen School replaced the institute for the deaf and dumb established here by Wilhelm Georg Pfingsten in 1805. Designed by municipal architect Julius Petersen, it is an imposing example of the Heimatschutz architectural style, and a protected historic monument.
In the middle of the Friedrichsberg district, Friedrichstraße broadens and takes on the dimensions of a market square, fringed since time immemorial with shops and other commercial undertakings. In the house at Number 56 (today the Friedrichsberger Pharmacy), Senator Bernhard Vollrat Wieck once operated his business. He devoted his charitable instincts to supporting Friedrichsberg’s municipal and church institutions for the poor and socially disadvantaged. In 1816, the board of the “Friedrichsberger Spar- und Leihkasse” held its first meeting here. This local savings and loan institution encouraged “servants, maids, laborers and assistants” to save money and provided affordable loans to local entrepreneurs.